Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen , usually referred to as was an n aerospace scientist and statesman who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born on October 15, 1931, in , , India, and passed away on July 27, 2015, while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong at the age of 83. He was known as the “ ” for his work on the development of ballistic missiles and space rocket technology. Kalam played a pivotal role in India’s nuclear test in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.
He was also a professor, chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (), and a writer. Dr. Abdul Kalam was a person who was not only a great political leader but also a good teacher and writer. He had many delicate qualities and was visionary. He always had an excellent dream for the country’s development and realized that the youth can bring revolution.
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen
EDUCATION OF APJ ABDUL KALAM –
- Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, popularly known as APJ Abdul Kalam, was born on October 15, 1931, in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India. He attended the Schwartz Higher Secondary School in Ramanathapuram, where he received his early education. From a young age, Kalam showed a keen interest in science and a curiosity for understanding how things work. He would often spend hours reading and exploring scientific concepts.
- After completing his school education, Kalam enrolled at Saint Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli, to pursue his undergraduate studies. He graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Physics in 1954. Kalam’s interest in aviation and aerospace led him to pursue a degree in Aeronautical Engineering. In 1955, he joined the Madras Institute of Technology (MIT) in Chennai (formerly known as Madras) for his Aeronautical Engineering studies. During his time at MIT, Kalam developed a vision to contribute to India’s missile and space programs. He was deeply inspired by his mentor, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist.
JOURNEY OF APJ ABDUL KALAM IN DRDO–
Dr. started his career at after graduating from the . He joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of DRDO as a scientist in 1958. Dr. Kalam shouldered the responsibility of shaping the missile development program in June 1982. He played a pivotal organizational, technical, and political role in ‘s nuclear test in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.
Dr. designed a small hovercraft called Nandi for battlefield applications while working at
Dr. Kalam was also part of the team that developed India’s first satellite launch vehicle (-III) at ISRO. He remained associated with DRDO throughout his career and made significant contributions to the development of India’s missile and nuclear weapons program.
Dr. worked on several projects during his time at , including:
- Small hovercraft: Dr. Kalam designed a small hovercraft called Nandi for battlefield applications.
- Missile development program: In June 1982, Dr. Kalam shouldered the responsibility of shaping the missile development program at DRDO.
- Indigenous technologies: Dr. Kalam contributed to the development of indigenous technologies at DRDO, including the hovercraft and missile systems.
- Science administration: Dr. Kalam worked as a science administrator at DRDO, where he oversaw the development of various scientific projects and programs.
Overall, Dr. Kalam’s contributions to DRDO were significant, and he played a pivotal role in the development of several indigenous technologies and missile systems.
MISSILE TECHNOLOGY BY APJ ABDUL KALAM
Dr. is known as the “ ” of for his contributions to the development of missile technology in the country. Here are some of his major contributions in this field:
- Indigenous Guided Missiles: Dr. Kalam was responsible for developing indigenous guided missiles at . He played a pivotal role in the development of the and missiles, which are now an integral part of India’s defense system.
- : Dr. Kalam also contributed to the development of India’s Ballistic Missile Defense program, which is designed to intercept and destroy incoming missiles.
- Integrated Guided Missile Development Program: Dr. Kalam was the chief architect of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (), which aimed to develop a range of missiles for various applications, including surface-to-air, surface-to-surface, and air-to-air missiles.
- Technology Transfer: Dr. Kalam worked to transfer missile technology to other countries, including and the
What were some of the challenges faced by Abdul Kalam in developing missile technology in India?
Dr. faced several challenges in developing missile technology in , including:
- Limited resources: India had limited resources for developing missile technology, which made it difficult to compete with other countries in the field.
- International sanctions: India faced international sanctions for its nuclear program, which made it difficult to acquire the necessary technology and materials for missile development.
- Lack of expertise: India lacked the necessary expertise in missile technology, which meant that Dr. Kalam and his team had to learn from scratch and develop indigenous solutions.
- Political opposition: There was political opposition to India’s missile program, which made it difficult to secure funding and support for the program.
Despite these challenges, Dr. Kalam and his team were able to develop indigenous missile technology in India, which helped to establish India as a major player in the field of missile technology.
BOOKS WRITTEN BY APJ ABDUL KALAM
Here is a list of books written by Dr. :
- 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium
- Wings of Fire: An Autobiography
- Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power within India
- The Luminous Sparks
- : Transforming Dreams into Actions
- The My Years with the President
- My Life: An Illustrated Biography
- Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji
- Reignited: Scientific Pathways to a
- Beyond 2020: A Vision for Tomorrow’s India
- Mission India: A Vision for Indian Youth
- Forge Your Future: Candid, Forthright, Inspiring
- The and the Nation
- Children Ask Kalam
- My Days with
- The Luminous Sparks of Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam
- The Guiding Light: A Selection of Quotations from My Favourite Books
- Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam
- Inspiring Thoughts
- My Spiritual Journey
- The Righteous Life: The Very Best of APJ Abdul Kalam
- The Visionary: Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam
- The People’s President: Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam
- A : A Sequel to India 2020
- You Are Born to : Take My Journey Beyond
How did Abdul Kalam’s contributions to India’s nuclear technology impact the country’s global standing?
Dr. ‘s contributions to ‘s nuclear technology had a significant impact on the country’s global standing. Here are some ways in which his contributions impacted India’s global standing:
- ‘s place as a future superpower: Dr. Kalam regarded his work on India’s nuclear weapons program as a way to assert India’s place as a future superpower.
- Pivotal in asserting India’s place in global politics: Dr. Kalam played a key role in boosting India’s nuclear capabilities, leading to nuclear tests in 1998, which was seen as pivotal in asserting the country’s place in global politics.
- Promoting self-reliance in defense technologies: Dr. Kalam was a strong advocate for India’s self-reliance in defence technologies, and his contributions to India’s nuclear technology helped to promote this self-reliance.
Overall, Dr. Kalam’s contributions to India’s nuclear technology helped to establish India as a major player in the field of nuclear technology and assert its place as a future superpower. His work also helped to promote India’s self-reliance in defence technologies, which further enhanced the country’s global standing.
Kalam’s death was a great loss to the nation, and he is remembered every year on his death anniversary for his contributions to the development of the country in several spheres.
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